Lunar forced CO2 variations (1820-2020)

Atmospheric CO2 variations from 1820-2020 are controlled by global sea surface temperature variations and the lunar nodal tide. The identified lunar nodal tide spectrum in CO2 variations reveals: 

  • Atmospheric CO2 variations are controlled global sea surface temperature (SST) variations.
  • Global sea temperature variations are controlled by solar forced and lunar forced variations.
  • Lunar nodal forced variations are controlled by the lunar nodal tide.
  • The lunar nodal tide is controlled by the moon.

The source of atmospheric CO2 variations is poorly understood. At Mauna Loa Hawaii, atmospheric CO2 has been recorded from 1959 to 2022. This is a short period for a reliable variability signature identification. From the 19th century, atmospheric CO2 has been recorded in several short periods over the Atlantic Ocean and Europe. The Beck CO2 time series covers the period from 1826 to 1960, estimated from selected 97404 selected samples from 901 stations and compiled in 87 data files (Beck 2022). Altogether, this time series covers atmospheric CO2 records over a total period of 200 years. 

200-year CO2 signature

In this investigation, a wavelet spectrum analysis identifies the signature of Mauna Loa atmospheric CO2 growth from 1960 to 2020 and Atlantic atmospheric CO2 for the period 1870 to 1960. The result reveals that the Atlantic CO2 variability from 1870-1960 coincides with Mauna Loa CO2 growth variations, global sea surface temperature variability and lunar nodal tide variability. The Atlantic CO2 signature and global sea surface temperature signature have a phase difference of pi/2 (rad). The CO2 growth rate, dCO2/dt, has a maximum when the sea surface temperature, SST, has a maximum state. This is an evidence of a SST-driven CO2 into the atmosphere. 

Ernst-Georg Beck created the CO2 time series from 1926-1960 by collecting 100.000 data samples from 901 sampling stations.

This figure shows the estimated atmospheric CO2 time series the years (1826-1960), based on 100.000 samples from 901 sampling stations (Beck 2022).

The autocorrelation of the Beck time series (1926-1960) has the stationary periods [ 9, 18, 29, 36] years. A coincidence the lunar nodal tide spectrum [1, 2, 3, 4]*18.6/2 years (Yndestad 2022b).

CO2 variations are not controllable

The CO2 variability signature periods coincides with the global sea temperature signature periods and the lunar nodal period spectrum. The lunar nodal tide periods reveals a chain of events from lunar nodal tide variations to global sea surface temperature variations and atmospheric CO2 variations. A lunar nodal tide spectrum in atmospheric CO2 growth reveals that CO2 variations are not controllable. CO2 variations are controlled by the sun and the lunar nodal tide.


Yndestad Harald, 2022: Publication of Ernst-Georg Beck ́s Atmospheric CO2 Time series from 1826-1960. Science of Climate Change, Vol. 2.2 (2022) pp. 134-136.

Beck, Ernst-Georg, 2022: Reconstruction of Atmospheric CO2 Background Levels since 1826 from Direct Measurements near Ground. Science of Climate Change, 2, 148-211.

Yndestad Harald, 2022a: Jovian Planets and Lunar Nodal Cycles in the Earth’s Climate. Variability, Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, 10 May.

Yndestad Harald, 2022b: Lunar Forced Mauna Loa and Atlantic CO2 Variability. Science of Climate Change, Vol. 2.3 (2022) pp. 258-274.

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